for Kerboodle & Revision
l Revised to more closely reflect the latest Edexcel B advice and
exam question wording
l The Student Book will be entered into the AQA approval process
Section A - The challenge of natural hazards
Unit 1 - Living with the physical environment
What are natural hazards?
On this spread you will use data and construct graphs to investigate shrinking
sea ice in the Arctic
Graphs and charts
● Completing and interpreting a line graph,
a divided bar chart and a pie chart
● Calculating mean, median and mode as
measurements of average
● Calculating percentages
(series ends September 2020)
0Extent (millions of square kilometres)
A The seasonal patterns of Arctic sea ice extent (1979-2018)
Arctic sea ice extent (in millions of km2)
B The extent of Arctic sea ice over the last 1500 years
2.5 1980 1985Minimum Arctic sea ice extent
(millions of square km)
1990 1995 2000
2005 2010 2015 2020
C Minimum extent of Arctic sea ice (1979-2005)
Is the Arctic sea ice shrinking?
On September 15 2020 the Arctic sea ice cover
reached its annual summer minimum. The area of
the Arctic Ocean where sea ice concentration was
at least 15 per cent sea ice was 3.7 million km2 -
the second smallest ever recorded.
Just as the surface of a pond develops a layer of
ice during cold winters, the surface of the Arctic
Ocean also freezes, forming sea ice. Salty seawater
has a lower freezing point than fresh water,
but once it cools to −2°C it starts to freeze. As
temperatures fall in autumn the extent of the sea
ice increases, to reach a maximum in early March.
As air temperature increases, the ice melts to
reach its annual minimum in September (graph C).
1 Study graph A.
a Describe the seasonal trends in the extent of
Arctic sea ice.
b Explain why these seasonal trends occur.
c What is the evidence on graph A to suggest
that the Arctic sea ice is shrinking?
2 Study graph B.
a Use a ruler to find the point on the line graph
b Describe the trend in Arctic sea ice extent up
c Suggest why scientists are concerned about the
trend aft er 1950.
3 Study graph C.
a Describe the trend in minimum sea ice extent from 1979-1996.
b How does the trend change in the period 1996-2005?
4 Use the data in table D to construct a line graph
showing the trend in minimum Arctic sea ice for
2006 to 2020. This will complete graph C. Use a scale
similar to that shown in the graph.
a Use a pencil to plot each value with a cross. Join
the crosses to complete your line graph.
b Annotate your graph to describe its features.
c Use the values in table D to calculate the mean
minimum sea ice extent for the period 2006-2020.
How does this compare to the median value?
6 As table E shows, the main greenhouse gas is
carbon dioxide. Table F lists the main emitters of
global carbon dioxide by sector.
a Construct a pie chart to represent the data in
table F. To convert percentages into degrees,
multiply by 3.6.
b Label each sector or construct a colour key.
c Describe the pattern of global carbon dioxide
emitters as shown by your pie chart.
D Minimum Arctic sea ice extent (2006-2020)
Year Minimum Arctic sea ice extent
5 Scientists believe that Arctic sea ice provides
evidence of global warming. This has been caused
by increases in greenhouse gases emitted by human
activities, which enhance the greenhouse eff ect.
Table E lists the main greenhouse gas emissions.
a Calculate the total percentage of carbon dioxide
b Calculate the contribution of burning fossil fuels
as a percentage of all carbon dioxide emissions.
c Represent the data in table E in a divided bar
chart. Construct a bar 2cm wide and 10cm high.
d Using a vertical scale of 1cm = 10 per cent,
complete your divided bar chart using diff erent
colours or shading to identify each greenhouse
gas. Consider how best to colour/shade the three
diff erent sources of carbon dioxide. Add labels or
use a key to identify each gas.
Carbon dioxide (burning fossil fuels) 57
Carbon dioxide (deforestation, decay of
Carbon dioxide (other) 3
Methane (livestock, paddy rice, organic
Nitrous oxide (vehicle exhausts, agriculture) 8
Fluorinated gases (fridges, aerosols) 1
E Global greenhouse gas emissions
Building operations 28
Building materials and construction 11
F Global carbon dioxide emissions by sector
1 What is the evidence that the Arctic sea ice is
2 With reference to greenhouse gas emissions,
suggest how Arctic sea ice shrinking might be linked
to climate change.
1 Evaluate the use of minimum Arctic sea ice as an
indicator of climate change.
2 Evaluate the eff ectiveness of mean, median and
mode in assessing the average annual minimum
extent of Arctic sea ice 2006-2020 (table D).
Comment on the eff ectiveness of divided bar and pie
charts in representing data. (4 marks)
202912_AQA GCSE Geog SB_Ch04.indd 58-59
202912_AQA GCSE Geog SB_Ch04.indd 58-59 05/11/21 11:07 PM
05/11/21 11:07 PM
Extension tasks and
on every spread help
Draft Student Book
Up-to-date case studies
examples that your
students can relate to
New Skills Focus pages
hone students' ability
to answer skills-based
questions with confidence